Contributed By Houda Law Firm
When a corporate form is adopted, the most common form in Senegal is the "société à responsabilité limitée" (Limited Liability Company – LLC).
In an SARL (LLC), partners have a responsibility towards social debts limited to their contributions. The capital is divided into shares. The company may include one or more partners. There is no minimum social capital: therefore, the company can have a capital of CFA1,000, for example. It is run by a manager who represents the company with respect to third parties, subject to the powers expressly conferred on the partners. It is not mandatory to appoint an external auditor except when the company reaches certain thresholds.
There are other forms of capital companies provided for by the Uniform Act on the law of commercial companies and the economic interest group (GIE).
The "Société Anonyme" (Public Limited Company)
This can take two forms of administration and direction:
In this second form, the SA is managed either by a Chairman of the Board of Directors plus a Chief Executive Officer, or by a Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (Président Directeur Général).
Its minimum capital is CFA10 million. In the event of contributions in cash to the constitution of the company, at least a quarter of the amount can be released, with the remainder within three years.
The founders must appoint a statutory auditor and a substitute.
The "Société par Actions Simplifiée" (Simplified Joint Stock Company)
The simplified joint stock company is a company established by one or more partners, whose statutes freely provide the mode of operation and organisation subject to the mandatory rules provided for by the Uniform Act on the law of commercial companies and economic interest groups.
There is no minimum social capital. The company is managed by a president and possibly one or more general managers.
It is not mandatory to appoint an external auditor except when the company reaches certain thresholds.
We can also add two other types of companies provided by the Uniform Act (below).
Companies in Which the Liability of the Partners is Indefinite in Relation to Social Debts
The high level of risk for the founders explains why these companies are very uncommon.
For tax purposes, all entities are not taxed as separate legal entities.
Some entities are taxed as a separate legal entity. This is the case of capital companies such as the public limited company and the limited liability company. However, it should be noted that companies whose sole object is the construction or acquisition of real estate or groups of buildings with a view to dividing them in fractions intended to be allocated to the shareholders are deemed, whatever their legal form, not to have a legal personality distinct from those of their members.
By contrast, the partnership regime disregards the existence of the legal personality of the company and directly apprehends the partners. In this case, we speak of a 'transparent' society.
However, the tax legislator allows certain companies to opt for corporation tax. The following are covered by this option: de facto corporations, economic interest groups, partnerships, joint ventures, limited partnerships, single-member limited liability companies where the sole shareholder is a person, professional civil societies and real estate companies (Article 4 of the General Tax Code – CGI).
In Senegal, the so-called fiscally transparent companies are:
Investment companies or venture capital companies are companies for which specific tax provisions are provided for by the General Tax Code.
However, when founders wish to create such a company, they choose a form of commercial company provided for by the Uniform Act relating to the law of commercial companies and GIE, generally a public limited company.
Besides so-called transparent companies, we can also add branches and representative offices. Some investment funds operating in Senegal exercise them through representative offices.
In the absence of a tax convention, Senegal applies the principle of territoriality to ascertain which state has the power to tax the profits of a company. Under this principle, profits from companies operating in Senegal are taxable. It is the establishment of the enterprise in Senegal that determines the taxation (Article 3 of CGI).
Senegal may have the right to tax in the following cases:
In the case of existence of a tax convention, the legal person is generally considered to be resident in the state in which it is subject to tax by reason of its domicile, residence, place of management or any other analogous criterion. Where a company is considered to be a resident of two or more states, it shall be deemed to be a resident of the state in which its place of effective management is situated.
The tax rates differ according to whether the legal entity is subject to corporation tax or personal income tax.
The corporate tax rate is set at 30% of taxable profit.
Note that there is a minimum tax called Minimum Flat Tax on Companies (IMF). It is due by all corporations or legal persons with losses or whose tax result does not allow to generate a corporate tax higher than the amount determined by a tariff fixed by the code. The IMF is due on the turnover excluding taxes realised the year preceding the one of the taxation, at a rate of 0.5%; its amount cannot under any circumstances be less than CFA500,000 or higher than CFA5 million.
For persons and entities that have not opted to be subject to corporate tax, the personal income tax applies directly to the partner's income. Taxable income is subject to a progressive scale whose rates can range from 0% to 40%, depending on the level of income (Article 173 of the CGI).
Taxable profits are determined from the accounting result of the past financial year. This is why taxpayers are required to settle their accounts each year on 31 December, except in case of transfer or cessation of activities during the year.
Taxable profit is the net profit determined according to the overall result of all types of transactions carried out by companies and legal entities, including in particular disposals of any assets, either at the end of the life of the company in certain predefined conditions, or during its existence.
For the purpose of determining taxable profit, the accounting profit recognised in the financial statements must be subject to extra-accountable readjustments from the net accounting profit basis:
As an indication, the reinstatements to taxable profit may consist of non-deductible depreciations, excess interest on partners' current accounts, part of the share of non-deductible expenses, unjustified sums paid into a privileged tax system, non-deductible taxes, fines and penalties, etc.
With respect to extra-accountable deductions, they may be exempt capital gains, exempt profits, and share products subject to the parent company and subsidiary regime.
The taxable income of the companies must be determined by applying the principle of acquired receivables and certain expenses.
No particular tax incentive of this nature is provided by the CGI. However, the Tax Code provides a number of tax incentives for approved companies in the investment codes (articles 229, 232 and 249 of the CGI).
Various tax incentives are provided by the general tax code, depending on the areas of activities, namely: mining, oil and gas, real estate promotion, investment in solar or wind energy, the export of goods and services, etc.
As far as financing activities are concerned, the holding company can be an interesting structure with regard to its tax regime. The code defines it as a public limited company, a limited liability company under Senegalese law for which the following conditions are fulfilled:
For the use of the tax benefits hereafter, the holding company cannot, except for the management of participations, exercise the following activities:
When these conditions are met, the tax regime applicable to parent companies and subsidiaries applies automatically to the holding company. See 6.3 Taxation on Dividends from Foreign Subsidiaries, below.
With regard to the taxation of interest on the current accounts provided for in Article 101 of the General Tax Code and paid by the said holding company, according to articles 173.2 and 208 of the General Tax Code, subject to the provisions of tax treaties, they must be subject to a withholding tax of 8% which may result in an imputation in accordance with the provisions of Article 209 of the Tax Code.
The Code also provides for a capital gains tax deferral regime arising from the disposal of fixed assets in the course of operations. To benefit from this regime, the taxpayer must undertake to reinvest in non-financial fixed assets in companies established in Senegal that he owns, before the expiry of a period of three years, the amount of the value added to the cost price of the assets sold (Article 19 of the Tax Code).
Senegalese tax law allows companies or legal entities subject to corporation tax to 'carry forward' losses. In the event of a deficit incurred during a financial year, this deficit is deducted from the profit made during the following year. If this profit is not sufficient so that the deduction can be fully made, the excess of the deficit is carried over successively to the following financial years until the third financial year following the loss-making period (Article 16 of the CGI). However, depreciations recorded in deficit period are not subject to this limitation.
The concept of 'carry back' does not exist in Senegalese tax law. The mechanism of compensation between capital loss and capital gain and vice versus also does not exist in Senegalese tax law.
The deduction of interest by local companies is limited by Senegalese tax legislation. This limitation is attached to the rate and the amount.
Interest is only deductible if the capital is fully paid up. Also, the deduction of interest paid to persons is limited to the remuneration of the sums made available by said persons that do not exceed the amount of the share capital; this limitation does not apply to interest paid by companies not subject to corporation tax to their associates who are subject to a tax on income in Senegal because of these interests.
The total amount of deductible net interest owed annually to all debts incurred by an enterprise member of a group of companies does not exceed 15% of ordinary activity income plus interest, and deprecations and provisions taken into account for the determination of this same result. But this limitation does not apply if the company provides evidence that the net interest expense ratio of the group of companies is greater than or equal to its own net interest charge ratio.
Certain adjustments are made in relation to the limitation about the amount of interest paid or owed by financial institutions or by insurance companies covered by the CIMA code, companies which are members of a group of companies composed solely of those resident in Senegal.
Some entities are obligated to present consolidated and combined accounts. The consolidation established by the OHADA accounting system aims at establishing common accounts which, consolidated in summary financial statements, will make it possible to present the assets, the financial situation and the result of the entities included in the consolidation, as if it were the act of a single entity, irrespective of the legal form of those entities.
The obligation to prepare the consolidated accounts relates to entities that have their registered office or principal activity in one of the state parties and that control one or more other entities exclusively or jointly.
Moreover, the entities that constitute a member state of the OHADA area, an economic entity subject to the same strategic decision centre located outside that region, without there being legal relations of domination between them, established and present, are referred to as 'combined financial statements', as if it were a single entity.
This notion of an entity replaced the notion of an enterprise in the new Uniform Act on Accounting Law and Financial Reporting (AUDC) of 26 January 2017. (See Article 74 et seq of the said Act).
In Senegal, consolidated tax groupings do not exist. For the handling of tax losses, the principle of territoriality, which is a double-edged sword, is applied.
Thus, in Senegal only the losses from companies run in Senegal are deductible. Horizontal trim movement is not allowed. The only exception to this rule – which is not really an exception because it is clearly a three-year delay – is the deduction for study and prospecting expenses incurred for the installation of equipment abroad of a sales establishment, an information office as well as financial charges.
The company that sells the shares, collecting incomes that are included in its taxable profits, is subject to corporation tax. As a reminder, the taxable profit is the net profit determined according to the overall result of transactions of any kind made by the companies, including in particular the disposals of assets.
In the case of a locked-in asset, the company may request the application of re-investment plan in order to obtain a deferral of taxation. See 6.7 Taxation on Gain on the Sale of Shares in Non-local Affiliates, below and 2.3 Other Special Incentives.
The company may be subject to certain transaction taxes, most of which are paid in the form of withholding, as described below:.
Note that withholding taxes are supposed to be borne by the beneficiary of the payments and not the debtor.
Right of registration and stamps: a certain number of acts concerning the company must obligatorily be registered. The applicable fees vary accordingly to the nature of the act (proportional rights). Sometimes, a simple fixed fee is also applicable; this is not a withholding tax.
Other taxes may also be due by the companies, as detailed below.
In most cases, activities are not carried out by setting up companies but informally or by natural persons registered as traders.
Since the entry into force of the new Uniform Act concerning the law of commercial companies and the economic interest grouping which reduced the minimum amount of share capital for a limited liability company from CFA1 million to no minimum capital, the number of incorporations has nevertheless increased.
Division of tax base between corporations and non-corporate businesses is not generally a problem that occurs. Persons subject to corporation tax are listed in Article 4 of the General Tax Code as well as those who may opt for this tax; the rest of the taxpayers are in principle subject to the personal income tax.
In Senegal, there are no tax rules in respect to this matter.
Dividends received by persons are subject to personal income tax in the category of income from securities (Article 85 of the CGI). This is a withholding tax in full discharge that the person paying dividends should also pay.
It should be noted that the mechanism for the taxation of personal income consists firstly in treating each income according to its category, and secondly in bringing all these categories together under the overall net income to be subjected to a second treatment. The overall net income is composed of the following categorical revenues:
Capital gains arising from the sale of shares in closely held corporations are considered as a non-commercial profit and, as such, is imposed on the income tax on individuals.
However, under Article 259.2, when a person having the status of partner, shareholder or holder of a beneficiary unit transfers to a third party during the life of the company, all or part of his social rights assets, the excess of the sale price or the value at the disposal, if the latter is greater than the first, of the acquisition price of these rights or their value five years before the date of the transfer, is taxed at the rate of 25% for one-third of its amount. The same is true of capital gains resulting from the redemption of units of mutual funds or their dissolution.
Also exempted from the personal income tax are capital gains realised on transfers of title, in the context of the management of a common investment fund or any other form of collective investment approved by the Minister in charge of finances.
Income from stock market transactions carried out on a regular or speculative basis by individuals is considered as profit of non-commercial professions and therefore subject to personal income tax. Where applicable, the tax is established on the sale price of the shares, less actual acquisition or disposal costs directly justified or assessed at a flat rate of 2% of the purchase price (Article 257 of the CGI).
In the absence of a tax convention, interest, dividends and royalties are subject to withholding tax at the normal rate, except for exemption.
For the interest, there is in Senegalese tax law a withholding tax called IRC (withholding tax on interest on receivables). See 2.9 Incorporated Businesses and Notable Taxes for transactions subject to this deduction.
However, the CGI provides for a number of exemptions; those most used by taxpayers are referred to in Section 104 of the CGI. Under this section the IRC deduction is not applicable to interest, arrears and all other current account revenue from an industrial, commercial, agricultural or mining occupation, subject to the twofold condition that:
The foregoing provisions shall be applied only to contractors whose current account income is taxable in Senegal in respect of industrial and commercial profits.
The rate of the IRC withholding tax is 16%. A reduced rate of 8% is applied to interest and other current account receipts of banks, a holding company meeting the conditions of Article 23 of the CGI and other similar bodies.
For dividends, the withholding tax on securities income (IRVM) applies. It applies to income distributed by legal entities subject to corporate income tax according to the General Tax Code.
It is important to note that the following are also considered as distributed income:
Legal entities subject to corporate income tax and distributing such income must carry out the withholding tax at a rate of 10% and transfer it to the Public Treasury.
However, where the parent company/subsidiary tax regime is applicable, distributed dividends by the parent company are not subject to withholding tax to the extent of the net amount of the shares or interest shares received from the subsidiary.
It should also be noted that products redistributed by mutual funds and constituting securities income are exempt from withholding tax, provided that they have actually borne the withholding.
For tax withholding on royalties – also called 'BNC holdback' – they must be operated by debtors established in Senegal, on the amounts paid to persons or companies under income tax or corporate income tax, which have no permanent professional installation in Senegal. The withholding is general in the absence of a tax convention and concerns the remuneration of services of any kind provided or used in Senegal. It covers the activities carried out in Senegal in the exercise of the professions mentioned in Article 156 of the abovementioned code and the products collected by the inventors or under copyright and any other products derived from industrial or commercial property and rights assimilated.
The rate of the above withholding tax is 25% of the net amount of the taxable amounts paid to individuals and companies, knowing that this net amount is determined by applying a 20% deduction to the gross cash receipt.
The primary tax treaty countries used by investors for investing in shares or debts of local companies are, generally, the Republic of Mauritius and France.
The tax authorities are effectivelycontrolling the use of treaty country entities by non-treaty country residents.
An application of this practice is the use of the concept of beneficial owner or the definition of the concept of 'resident' given in the tax treaties concluded by Senegal.
The biggest transfer pricing issues facing foreign investors are turnkey markets. The tax administration often challenges the distribution of the revenues and expenses that must be attached to the permanent establishment in Senegal and the market price allocation key between the foreign company and the local entity it creates for this purpose.
Another problem – related to transfer pricing, and often subject to tax recovery for foreign companies in Senegal with local entities – concerns intangible assets, including the transfer or grant of trademark or patent. The tax administration sometimes sees a renunciation of products, therefore abnormal acts of management for the local subsidiary, with sometimes an increase of charge.
The General Tax Code contains provisions that allow the administration to oppose the unbalanced distribution of charges by foreign companies with local entities in Senegal (Article 8, 31 bis 610, 638 of the CGI).
Thus, in Letter No 280 DGID/DLEC/BC of 15 July 2011, the assumption by a local entity of costs incurred by the group in the absence of a reasonable allocation key set in advance by the group was duly contested.
It should be noted that the questioning of these agreements is becoming increasingly frequent.
Moreover, Article 638 requires the legal person established in Senegal to keep at the disposal of the tax administration, on the date of the undertaking of the accounting audit, the documentation enabling the price-charging policy to be justified in connection with transactions of any kind with related companies.
The transfer pricing provisions are similar to those of the OECD, as they were inspired by the work undertaken by the latter.
Article 17 authorises the administration to readjust the profits when it discovers an abnormal transfer of the latter abroad. However, before any tax adjustment, it is recommended for taxpayers to approach the tax administration for an approval of their transfer prices. The method of determination of the price charged by the taxpayer must be sufficiently justified and documented according to the nature of the activity.
Concerning the MAPS operations, no difficulty of application has thus far been raised.
Branches are, in general, subject to the same taxes as subsidiaries. Regarding corporate income tax, no differentiation of rates is made.
However, there is a difference in the withholding tax on securities income. As pointed out, in the case of subsidiaries, a 10% withholding tax had to apply except in the presence of a derogatory regime such as the parent-subsidiary regime. On the other hand, with regard to foreign legal persons, the code provides for a presumption of distribution of profits that may result in the application of a 20% withholding tax. Indeed, Article 204 of the General Tax Code provides that, subject to the provisions of the international conventions, the fraction equal to half of the profits made in Senegal by the foreign legal persons referred to in Article 84 and which have not been reinvested in this country, is deemed to be distributed in respect of each financial year to partners not having their tax domicile or registered office in Senegal.
Also, in relation to the deductible expenses of the profits, the branch which exercises an activity in Senegal but whose headquarter is abroad can deduct from their profits in Senegal a share of the expenses of their headquarter; this is subject to the international tax conventions, prorated of the total turnover of these same companies without being able to exceed 20% of the accounting profit achieved in Senegal before deduction of the said quota. Whereas for the subsidiaries, the basic principle remains applicable – ie, only those expenses incurred in the direct interest of the company or related to its normal management are deductible.
Moreover, in areas such as the EU, a permanent establishment (for example, a branch) holding shares in another company and fulfilling the conditions of the parent-subsidiary plan may benefit from the exemption provided for this purpose. In WAEMU and Senegal, this scheme is reserved solely for the relationship between the parent company and its subsidiary.
Share capital gains made by foreign companies are taxed in Senegal on corporate income tax at the time of registration of the deed or in the absence of registration in the month following the transfer (Article 4.2.5 and 31.6 of the GTC).
In addition, in case of formal registration, a registration fee of 1% on the market value of the shares is due (or of 1% of the stipulated price, if higher).
When the capital gain achieved by a foreign company is about shares held by a holding company located abroad which holds them directly on a local company, the situation becomes more complex. Indeed, the General Tax Code provides the taxation of transfers of securities or social rights held in companies under Senegalese law. As such, the tax will be payable by the legal entity that is supposed to hold the shares, but it remains due (Article 4.5 of the GTC).
On the other hand, the code provides for a substantial exemption of the holding company's products. In fact, the parent subsidiary regime applies as of right to Senegalese holding companies incorporated in the form of a joint stock company, or a limited liability company of which at least two-thirds of the fixed assets consist of participations which meet a number of conditions. However, the benefit of this regime assumes that the holding company is a company incorporated under Senegalese law; see above, 1.3 Determining Residence.
The tax treaties signed by Senegal generally remedy this double taxation by granting the power to impose on the contracting state of which the transferor is a resident unless the shares are part of the assets of a permanent establishment which the foreign seller holds in Senegal.
There is no provision in Senegalese tax law for a change of control that may lead to a higher taxation of a foreign holding company compared to a company governed by national law.
Tax forms are available from tax authorities for determining taxpayer income.
The deduction of expenses is subject to the conditions of Article 8.II of the CGI. Under this article the profit is established after deduction of all expenses fulfilling the following conditions:
As a result, management and administration fees are only deductible if the above conditions are met. For this purpose, a fair distribution key can help to convince the administration which has a wide margin of appreciation in this area. The deduction is more permissible when the costs are re-invoiced by the parent company and not a subsidiary of the group.
In case of a permanent establishment, Article 17 al.2 of the GTC prohibits the deduction of sums paid or due, other than for the reimbursement of expenses incurred, by the permanent establishment in the central office or at any of its offices as a royalty, honorarium or other similar payments or as commissions for specified services rendered or for a management activity, or as interest on money lent to the permanent establishment, except in the case of a banking business.
See 2.5 Imposed Limits on Deduction of Interest.
According to the principle of territoriality provided in Article 3 of the CGI, "the corporate income tax is due on the basis of the profits made in Senegal. Profits from businesses operated in Senegal are deemed to be carried out in Senegal. As a result, the foreign income of a Senegalese company are exempt from corporate income tax in Senegal because it is not achieved in Senegal".
The downside of the aforementioned territoriality principle is that expenses related to products made abroad are not deductible from profits made in Senegal. Also, under Article 8.II of the CGI, the expenses, to be deductible, must be exposed in the direct interest of the company or be attached to the normal management of the company subject to tax in Senegal.
In principle, the dividends of foreign subsidiaries of a Senegalese company are subject to the parent companies subsidiaries regime.
To benefit from this regime, certain conditions must be fulfilled; see above, 2.3 Other Special Incentives.
When these conditions are met, dividends received from a foreign subsidiary are deducted from total net income after deducting a proportionate share of the fees and expenses set at 5% of gross dividend income. However, the proportionate share must not exceed, for each tax period, the total amount of expenses and expenses of any kind incurred by the parent company during the said period.
Intangible assets owned by local companies and used by foreign subsidiaries in their activities must be remunerated for the benefit of the former. At the very least, the local company has to prove a sufficient interest that it derives from the making available of the assets to another independent company.
Failing this, the tax administration considers the transaction to be an abnormal management act and proceeds to readjust the taxable profit.
There is no specific provision in the Senegalese tax system for 'controlled foreign companies' (CFC or SEC). However, other anti-abuse rules exist and are sometimes used by the tax authorities to offset this type of profit transfer. This is the case, for example, for Article 17 of the CGI which provides that "for the establishment of the corporate income tax payable by companies that are dependent or who have control of companies located outside Senegal, profits indirectly transferred to the latter either by increasing or decreasing purchase or selling prices, or by under-capitalisation, or by any other means, are incorporated in the results recorded in the accounts".
Other provisions of this type appear in the GTC and are intended in particular to limit the deductibility of amounts paid to individuals or legal entities established in countries where they are subject to privileged tax regimes or in a non-cooperative country. In these types of situations, the debtor will have to produce the evidence that the expenses correspond to actual transactions and that they are not abnormal or exaggerated.
The same applies to all payments made to an account held in a financial institution established in one of the non-cooperative or tax haven states or territories.
In Senegal, there are no rules related to the substance of non-local affiliates.
A local business that realises a gain on the sale of shares of non-local subsidiaries is subject to corporation tax on the proceeds received.
The applicable regime depends on the fact that the surplus value is realised during its social life or at the end of exploitation.
For capital gains realised in the course of operations, when the shares correspond to fixed assets, the transferor may benefit from a staggered tax. However, for this, the taxpayer must make the commitment to reinvest in non-financial fixed assets in the companies established in Senegal of which he has the property – before the expiry of a period of three years from the closing of this exercise – an amount equal to the amount of these capital gains added to the cost price of the items sold.
Regarding capital gains realised on shares considered as fixed assets at the end of the operation or in the event of a partial sale of the business, they are included in the taxable profits for one-third of their amount. However, when the transfer or cessation occurs less than five years after the creation of the company, the capital gain is retained in the profits of the company for half of its amount.
When it is not a fixed asset, taxation is made at the normal rate of corporation tax at the same time as the other profits.
The declaration must be made within 30 days.
In addition, the act of transfer of shares must be subject to the registration fee of 1% on the market value of the shares (or on the stipulated price, if it is higher).
The General Tax Code contains numerous anti-tax avoidance provisions, as detailed below.
Transfer Price and Readjustment
Article 17.1 is the bedrock of the scheme to combat the indirect transfer of profits. It allows the administration to readjust the profits of an enterprise established in Senegal when it finds that part of these profits have been abnormally transferred to dependent entities residing in other states, often with lower taxation.
Thus, for the establishment of corporation tax owed by companies that are dependent or that have control of companies located outside Senegal, the profits indirectly transferred to them by raising or lowering purchase or sale, either by under-capitalisation or by any other means, are incorporated in the results recorded in the accounts.
Transfer Price and Payment Ban from the Permanent Establishment to the Head Office
Article 17.2 of the CGI confirms the tax impossibility for a permanent establishment to pay for its head office. This means that the legislature considers that there is only one entity between the foreign head office and its permanent establishment in Senegal. Thus, it excludes, for the deduction of corporation tax expenses of the permanent establishment, sums paid or owed, other than the reimbursement of expenses incurred, by the permanent establishment at the head office of the permanent establishment, the legal person or any of its offices, as royalties, fees, or other similar payments, for the use of patents or other rights, or as commissions for specific services rendered or for a management activity or except in the case of a banking enterprise, as interest on money lent to the permanent establishment.
Obligation of Documentation
Article 31 bis, 31 ter and 638 of the General Tax Code establish a documentation requirement to allow the tax administration to control prices charged in the context of transactions of any kind carried out with foreign companies.
Two types of declarations must be distinguished.
Declaration on the company, its transactions and the group
The transfer price documentation applies to a specific category of taxpayers but also its content is well defined.
Senegal is making significant efforts to improve tax transparency. Law 2018-10 of 30 March 2018 introduced into the General Tax Code the country-by-country reporting requirement which is one of the OECD's recommendations to eradicate transfer pricing.
Thus, in accordance with Article 31 ter of the CGI, a declaration containing the country-by-country breakdown of the group's profits and the economic, accounting and tax aggregates, as well as information on the location and activity of the constituent entities, is subscribed in dematerialised form, within 12 months following the end of the financial year, by legal entities established in Senegal that meet the following criteria:
This same declaration is required of legal persons established in Senegal and held or controlled by a legal person established in a state or territory which has not signed with Senegal an agreement allowing automatic exchange of declarations country-by-country; a list of these states will have to be decided by the Minister in charge of finances.
The Limitation of Sums Paid into a Privileged Tax System
Senegal has also in its general tax code a mechanism allowing the tax administration to reject the deduction, from the corporation tax, of sums paid by natural or legal persons domiciled or established in Senegal to natural persons or corporations domiciled or established in a foreign state or territory outside Senegal and subject to a privileged tax regime, or a non-cooperative country. In this case, in order to be able to deduct the expenses in question, the debtor must prove that they correspond to real transactions and that they are not abnormal or exaggerated (see Article 18 of the CGI).
The covered expenses concern the interest, arrears and other products of the bonds, the receivables deposits and securities, the royalties of cession or concession of the licences of exploitation, patents, trade marks, processes or formulas of manufacture and other rights analogous or payment for services.
The same applies to any payment made to an account held in a financial institution established in a non-cooperative or privileged state or territory.
Persons are considered to be subject to a preferential tax regime in the state or territory in question if they are not taxable there or if they are subject to taxes on profits or income that would have been liable to conditions of common law in Senegal, had they been domiciled or established there.
States and territories that do not comply with international standards for transparency and the exchange of information in the tax field are considered as non-cooperative, so as to promote the administrative assistance necessary for the application of the legislation. The list of so-called non-cooperataive states shall be fixed by decision of the Minister of Finance.
The Limitation of the Deductibility of Financial Charges
Please see 2.5 Imposed Limits on Deduction of Interest, above.
High Taxation of Hidden Salaries
Corporations and limited liability companies which, directly or indirectly, pay to persons whose identity they do not disclose, commissions, brokerage, commercial or non-commercial rebates, bonuses and any other remuneration, are subject to the income tax on the basis of the total amount of these sums. A tax rate of 40% without deduction is applied to these amounts paid.
Abuse of Rights
Article 610 of the CGI is a general anti-abuse provision often used by the administration to re-qualify agreements made between taxpayers. Under this article, the qualifications given by the persons subject to the operations and acts they carry out are not opposable to the Tax Administration, which has the right to give them back their true qualification.
Additionally, any transactions, concluded in the form of a contract or any legal act and concealing or disguising a realisation or a transfer of profits or income, carried out directly or by intermediaries is not opposable to the administration tax. This is also the case for acts giving rise to lower registration fees or to avoid in whole or in part the payment of turnover taxes.
Note that in case of abuse of rights and in case of swindling, concealment or bad faith in the declaration, payment or repayment of any taxes, duties and taxes or fees, the applicable penalty is 50%.
The Theory of the Abnormal Act of Management
Please see 4.4 Transfer Pricing Issues, above.
The tax legislator has provided for a system of monitoring taxpayers' compliance with their tax obligations, which we summarise as follows.
Periodicity of Controls
When the audit of the accounting for a specified period is completed, the administration cannot carry out a new on-site audit for the same period on the taxes, duties and fees that have been the subject of the preceding completed audit.
However, in the event of discovery of a new element or document subsequent to the on-the-spot check, the administration is entitled to initiate a new verification procedure or to issue rights reminders relating to the period already verified. Also, this prohibition on renewing an audit does not apply where only part of the activity of the person liable, or an aspect of that activity, has been verified or where an automatic taxation has followed a refusal by the taxpayer to submit requested documents.
Period of Resumption of Administration
The tax administration has a period of four years from the date of the infringement to establish and sanction the failings committed by taxpayers and taxable persons. This four-year period is not applicable in the event of an error made either on the nature of the tax applicable or on the place of taxation, where the taxpayer is engaged in a covert activity, in the event of omissions or shortcomings of the tax imposed by a court proceeding or a litigation claim. It is the same in case of request for information to another state.