Blockchain 2021 Comparisons

Last Updated June 17, 2021

Contributed By Marxer & Partner

Law and Practice

Authors



Marxer & Partner was founded in 1925 and is owned by 12 partners. The law firm has a total of approximately 100 employees, including lawyers and assistants, which makes it the oldest and largest in Liechtenstein. For over 95 years, Marxer & Partner has been advising its clients in areas such as corporate law, M&A, trust and estate planning, capital markets and tax. Furthermore, Marxer & Partner is one of the leading Liechtenstein law firms advising and assisting its clients in the emerging field of fintech. The firm provides in-depth knowledge and advice in these fields to its international client base. Marxer & Partner’s experienced corporate litigation team has successfully represented clients in litigation and international arbitration proceedings, completing the scope of services provided to clients. Many of the firm’s lawyers regularly contribute to international handbooks and other publications, speak at conferences and teach at universities. The firm represents Liechtenstein at Lex Mundi, the worldwide association of independent law firms.

In Liechtenstein, the development of fintech has picked up considerably in recent years. In 2014, almost no fintechs applied for a permit in Liechtenstein but the number of inquiries has increased exponentially. In 2015, the Liechtenstein government and the Liechtenstein Financial Market Authority (FMA) created the so-called Regulatory Laboratory to help innovative fintech companies with licensing and regulatory issues. In 2016, the Ministry of Presidential Affairs and Finance decided to appoint an internal group of experts to deal with the issues surrounding blockchain technology. By 2017, the FMA had been contacted by around 100 fintech companies. Many of these companies were related to blockchain technology. Initially, they were focused on payment transactions. This then shifted to initial coin offerings (ICO).

In 2018, the Liechtenstein government initiated a legislative process by consultation, which eventually led to a motion of the Liechtenstein government to the Liechtenstein Parliament that was approved on 3 October 2019. On 2 December 2019, the Liechtenstein Law of 3 October 2019 on Token and Trustworthy Service Providers (Gesetz vom 3. Oktober über Token und VT-Dienstleister (TVTG), LGBl. 2019/301) was issued and became effective in Liechtenstein on 1 January 2020. Furthermore, on the basis of the TVTG, the Ordinance of 10 December 2019 on Token and Trustworthy Service Providers (Verordnung vom 10. Dezember 2019 über Token und VT-Dienstleister (TVTV), LGBl. 2019/349) was adopted and it also become effective on 1 January 2020.

At first, the focus of most fintech businesses was on payment transactions only. In the recent past, however, there has been a huge demand for ICOs where tokens have been offered for various things (eg, payment tokens, tokens linked to real estate or tokens linked to fungible assets such as currencies or commodities).

As of May 2021, 12 entities have been granted permits by the Liechtenstein Financial Market Authority pursuant to the TVTG. The following licences have been issued whereas some companies hold more than one of these licences: namely as "token issuer", "token generator", "trusted technology identity service provider", "trustworthy technology price service provider", "trustworthy technology key custodian", "trustworthy technology token custodian", and "trustworthy technology exchange service provider".

Currently, there is only one Liechtenstein bank which accepts payments in decentralised currencies.

Since 1 January 2020, the TVTG has been in effect and applicable in Liechtenstein.

Given that the Principality of Liechtenstein is a member state of the European Economic Area (EEA), generally, financial intermediaries licensed by the Liechtenstein FMA may provide their services to other countries in the EEA (EU-passporting). It should be noted, however, that services licensed by the FMA under the TVTG cannot be passported into other EEA countries.

The applicable Liechtenstein provisions implement the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Recommendations. Hence, the FMA monitors whether the due diligence obligations have been observed by licensed service providers under the TVTG. According to Article 3, paragraph 1 of the Liechtenstein Due Diligence Act (Sorgfaltspflichtgesetz (SPG), LGBl. 2009/047), the following, inter alia, are obliged to observe the due diligence obligations according to the SPG:

  • certain trustworthy technology (TT) service providers subject to registration under the TVTG;
  • token issuers not subject to registration who are domiciled or resident in Liechtenstein and who issue tokens in their own name or not professionally on behalf of the principal, to the extent that they process transactions of CHF1,000 or more, irrespective of whether that transaction is carried out in a single operation or in several operations between which there appears to be a connection; and
  • operators of trading platforms for virtual currencies or tokens.

The Liechtenstein Financial Market Authority (FMA) issues licences under the TVTG and keeps the register of licensed Trustworthy Service Providers.

The Liechtenstein FMA is the only Liechtenstein competent official body in relation to token and trustworthy technology service providers.

Given that the applicable TVTG has been effective since 1 January 2020 only, there are no such judicial decisions available as of April 2021.

The applicable TVTG has been effective since 1 January 2020 only. According to Article 12 of the TVTG, the following registration obligations with the Liechtenstein FMA apply.

Who Has to Register?

Legal entities or individuals having their registered office or place of residence in Liechtenstein who professionally wish to provide trustworthy technology (TT) services according to the TVTG in Liechtenstein shall apply in writing to the FMA for registration in the Register of Trustworthy Technology Service Providers (Article 23) before providing the service for the first time (Article 12, paragraph 1 TVTG). Furthermore, token issuers domiciled or resident in Liechtenstein who issue tokens in their own name or not professionally in the name of the principal shall apply in writing to the FMA for registration in the Register of Trustworthy Technology Service Providers before commencing their activities, provided that tokens with a value of CHF5 million or more are issued within a period of twelve months (Article 12, paragraph 2 TVTG). Furthermore, since the amendment of the TVTG (LGBL 2021/036), individuals domiciled or resident abroad who wish to provide TT services through the use of physical vending machines in Liechtenstein shall apply in writing to the FMA for registration in the Register of Trustworthy Technology Service Providers before the physical vending machines are put into operation for the first time.

Registration Requirements

The entry in the Trustworthy Technology Service Provider Register (Article 23) requires that the applicant:

  • is capable of acting;
  • is reliable;
  • is technically qualified;
  • has its registered office or place of residence in Liechtenstein;
  • if applicable, has the necessary minimum capital;
  • has an appropriate organisational structure with defined areas of responsibility and a procedure for dealing with conflicts of interest;
  • has internal procedures and control mechanisms in writing that are appropriate with regard to the nature, scope, complexity and risks of the trustworthy technology services provided and ensure adequate documentation of these;
  • has specific internal control mechanisms, where applicable;
  • if they intend to act as a trustworthy technology protector, have a licence under the Trustee Act; and
  • if it intends to carry out an activity which is subject to an additional authorisation requirement under a law pursuant to Article 5, paragraph 1 of the Financial Market Supervision Act, it holds that corresponding licence.

TT agents are exempted from certain requirements (eg, minimum capital requirements) due to the fact that they generally take over distribution tasks. The exemptions are set forth in Article 13, paragraph 1a of the TVTG.

The website of the Liechtenstein FMA provides valuable information regarding the requirements which must be met in order to be permitted to offer services under the TVTG. The Liechtenstein FMA has uploaded a questionnaire which provides guidance as to whether the desired business model will be licensed under the TVTG or not. It should be noted, however, that the result of this questionnaire is only a rough estimate and not legally binding.

The Liechtenstein tax regime has not been amended because of the TVTG. The uniform corporate income tax rate for companies in Liechtenstein is 12.5%.

Prior to the TVTG, the Liechtenstein government and the Liechtenstein FMA created the Regulatory Laboratory to help innovative fintech companies with licensing and regulatory issues. Furthermore, the Ministry of Presidential Affairs and Finance appointed an internal group of experts to deal with the issue of blockchain technology before the TVTG came into force.

Article 1 of the TVTG determines, inter alia, that it establishes the legal framework for transaction systems based on trustworthy technology (TT) and regulates, in particular, the civil law principles relating to tokens, the representation of rights by means of tokens and their transfer. Its purpose is (i) to ensure trust and confidence in digital legal transactions, in particular in the financial and economic sector, and to protect users on TT systems; and (ii) the creation of an optimal, innovation-friendly and technology-neutral framework for the provision of services on TT systems.

The holder of the TT key has the power of disposal over the token. It is assumed that the person who has the power of disposition is also the person entitled to dispose of the token. Any previous holder of the power of disposition is assumed to have been the person entitled to dispose of the token at the time of its possession. If someone is the holder of the power of disposition without wanting to be the person authorised to dispose of the token, they can trust that the person from whom they received the token in good faith is authorised to dispose of it.

The following shall be deemed to be a disposition in accordance with the TVTG: (i) the transfer of the right of disposal over the token, or (ii) the establishment of a security or usufruct right to a token.

The disposal of a token requires that:

  • the transfer of the token has been completed according to the rules of the TT system, whereby a limited right in rem in a token can be established even without transfer, provided that this is recognisable to third parties and the time of the disposition is clearly determined;
  • the transferor and the transferee agree to transfer the right of disposal of the token or to establish a limited right in rem; and
  • the transferor is entitled to dispose of it.

If a token is disposed of without a legal basis, or if this legal basis subsequently ceases to exist, the reversal is carried out according to the regulations of the law of enrichment (Sections 1431 et seq of the Liechtenstein Civil Code (ABGB)).

The disposal of the token causes the disposal of the right represented by the token. If the legal effect according to the preceding sentence does not occur by law, the person obliged by the disposal of the token must ensure, by appropriate measures, that (i) the disposal of a token directly or indirectly effects the disposal of the right represented by the token, and (ii) a concurrent disposition of the right represented is excluded.

The disposition of a token is legally binding and effective against third parties even in the event of enforcement proceedings against the transferor, if the transfer (i) was triggered in the TT system before the opening of the proceedings; or (ii) was triggered after the opening of the proceedings in the TT system and on the day of the opening of the proceedings, provided that the transferee proves that they had no knowledge of the opening of the proceedings or was not in a position where they should have had such knowledge if they had exercised due diligence.

In order to enable transfer rights represented and transferred in a token on a TT system, the legal figure of the value right (Wertrechte) is incorporated into Liechtenstein law.

The mode for the transfer of digital assets (value rights) is the entry of the (new) owner into a value rights register specifically designed for this purpose. The entry in the value rights register is equivalent to other modes in "traditional" asset transfers under Liechtenstein law.

The TVTG does not provide for a specific definition of payment token, security token, or utility token. Depending on the specification, tokens may be classified as financial instruments, though, and may therefore be subject to the respective Liechtenstein laws dealing with financial instruments. These may include, for example, tokens that have the characteristics of equity securities or have an investment character. Activities relating to financial instruments are generally subject to legal licensing requirements by the FMA and may be subject to the obligation to publish a prospectus. In any case, the concrete form and factual function of the tokens are decisive. Any anti-money laundering (AML) and "know your customer" (KYC) obligations are also dependent on the respective structure of the tokens. Please refer to 4.3 KYC/AML for further discussion.

The TVTG does not provide for a specific definition of stablecoins.

Cryptocurrencies are not a legal tender in Liechtenstein. That is, one cannot be obliged to accept payment in cryptocurrency. Apart from this, anyone is free to accept cryptocurrency as a means of payment within the limits of private autonomy.

The TVTG does not provide for a specific definition of non-fungible tokens.

Currently, there are five TT service providers registered with the Liechtenstein FMA where custodial exchanges are offered.

Liechtenstein financial market law does not recognise the term "crypto-exchange". With respect to such business models, it must therefore be clarified in each individual case whether a licence is required or not. The exchange between cryptocurrencies and legal tender does not, in principle, require a licence under Liechtenstein law. Nonetheless such exchanges are subject to due diligence provisions.

The exchange between different cryptocurrencies also does not, in principle, require a licence under Liechtenstein law but is similarly subject to due diligence provisions.

According to Article 3, paragraph 1 of the Liechtenstein Due Diligence Act (Sorgfaltspflichtgesetz (SPG), LGBl. 2009/047), the following are obliged to observe the due diligence obligations according to the SPG:

  • certain TT service providers subject to registration under the TVTG;
  • token issuers not subject to registration who are domiciled or resident in Liechtenstein and who issue tokens in their own name or not professionally on behalf of the principal, to the extent that they process transactions of CHF1,000 or more, irrespective of whether that transaction is carried out in a single operation or in several operations between which there appears to be a connection; and
  • operators of trading platforms for virtual currencies or tokens.

These obligations encompass:

  • the establishment and verification of the identity of the contracting party;
  • the establishment and verification of the identity of the beneficial owner;
  • preparation of a business profile; and
  • risk-adequate monitoring of the business relationship.

The digital assets and the trustworthy technology services are regulated in the TVTG. Depending on what services are offered in relation to digital assets, certain notifications and registrations with the FMA might be triggered.

There is no specific regulation in Liechtenstein concerning the use of crypto-assets as collateral in transactions.

If providers of storage solutions for cryptographic keys fall within the scope of the TVTG, which took effect on 1 January 2020, they have to fulfil specific requirements (organisational structure, minimum capital requirements, etc), have to register with the Liechtenstein FMA, are supervised by the FMA and are subject to due diligence provisions. If such a provider is not subject to the provisions of the TVTG, its business activities may require a licence under Liechtenstein financial market law depending on its characteristics, its factual design and the nature of its business model.

Subject to subsequent exemptions, issuers of tokens shall, prior to their issue of tokens:

  • provide basic information;
  • publish that basic information in an easily accessible manner; and
  • notify the FMA of the token issue.

The above obligations do not apply to a public offer of tokens if:

  • all acquirers have demonstrably declared before the acquisition of the token that they will waive the basic information;
  • the offer is aimed at fewer than 150 users;
  • the sales price of the total issue does not exceed CHF5 million or the equivalent in other currencies; or
  • there is already an obligation to publish qualified information on the public offering of tokens under other laws.

Moreover, no further basic information is to be published in any subsequent public resale of tokens if (i) basic information has already been published, and (ii) the issuer or the person responsible for compiling the basic information has agreed in writing to its use.

Basic Information

Basic information shall include in particular the following details.

  • Information on the tokens to be issued and the associated rights.
  • The name of the TT system used.
  • A description of the purpose and nature of the legal transaction underlying the issue of tokens.
  • A description of the conditions of purchase and transfer of the tokens.
  • An indication of the risks associated with the purchase of the tokens.
  • When issuing tokens representing rights to property:
    1. evidence from a registered physical validator of ownership of the item; and
    2. a confirmation from a registered physical validator that the rights represented in the issued tokens are also enforceable according to the basic information.

Token issuers domiciled or resident in Liechtenstein who issue tokens in their own name or not professionally on behalf of the principal must apply in writing to the FMA for registration in the TT Service Provider Register before commencing their activities, provided that tokens worth CHF5 million or more are issued within a period of twelve months.

If this service qualifies as a TT service in accordance with the TVTG, the relative applicable provisions shall be observed.

For investment funds or collective investment schemes that invest in digital assets the same provisions apply.

The TVTG defines the following persons as TT Service Providers:

  • a "token issuer" is a person who offers tokens to the public in their own name or in the name of a principal;
  • a "token generator" is a person who generates one or more tokens;
  • a "TT key custodian" is a person who holds TT keys on behalf of principals;
  • a "TT token depositary" is a person who holds tokens in custody on behalf of another person for the account of another person;
  • a "TT-protector" is a person who holds tokens on TT systems in their own name for the account of others;
  • a "physical validator" is a person who ensures the contractual enforcement of rights to property represented in tokens, as defined in the property law of TT systems;
  • a "TT exchange service provider" is a person who exchanges legal tender for tokens and vice versa as well as tokens for tokens;
  • a "TT verifier" is a person who verifies the legal capacity and the conditions for the disposal of a token;
  • a "TT price service provider" is a person who provides users of TT systems with aggregated price information on the basis of offers to buy and sell or completed transactions;
  • a "TT identity service provider" is a person who identifies the holder of a token and enters it in a directory; and
  • a "TT agent" is a person who professionally distributes or provides TT services on behalf of and for the account of a foreign TT service provider in the domestic market.

Persons domiciled or resident in Liechtenstein who wish to provide TT services professionally in Liechtenstein shall apply in writing to the FMA for registration in the Register of TT Service Providers before providing the service for the first time. The relevant provisions of Articles 12 et seq of the TVTG apply accordingly.

Although Liechtenstein has passed the TVTG, private contractual agreements are still subject to the traditional rules of enforcement under Liechtenstein law. Apart from specific formal requirements for some contract types, the parties to the respective private contractual agreement are free to choose its form. Within the limits of private autonomy this choice has, in principle, no effect on the enforceability of the contract.

The liability of software developers is generally determined by the provisions of Liechtenstein civil law and, in particular, product liability law.

Whether or not running a decentralised financial (DeFi) platform requires a licence and is subject to the respective Liechtenstein financial market law provisions depends on the characteristics, the factual design and the nature of the business model. Accordingly, this can only be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Taking an effective security interest in a digital asset (value right) requires adherence to the so-called principle of causal tradition. The latter requires a legally valid title and a so-called mode aimed at establishing the respective security interest. The mode for establishing a security interest in digital assets (value rights) is an entry of the security interest, and in particular the secured party, into a value rights register specifically designed for this purpose. The entry in the value rights register is equivalent to other modes for security interests in "traditional" assets under Liechtenstein law.

In order to transfer digital assets (value rights) an entry of into a value rights register specifically designed for this purpose is required. The entry in the value rights register is equivalent to other modes for security interests in "traditional" assets under Liechtenstein law.

If custodians of digital assets fall within the scope of the TVTG, they have to fulfil specific requirements (organisational structure, minimum capital requirements, etc), have to register with the FMA, are supervised by the FMA and have to adhere to due diligence provisions. Other custodians for digital assets may require a licence under Liechtenstein financial market law depending on the characteristics, the factual design and the nature of their business model.

There are no exemptions for blockchain-based products or services as concerns data privacy. The relative provisions of data protection regulation apply accordingly. Thus, individuals have the right to have their personal data deleted. The right to deletion is not absolute and applies only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are:

  • the personal data no longer being needed for the purpose for which it was originally collected or processed;
  • where the data processing is based on consent and the data subject withdraws that consent;
  • where the data processing is based on "legitimate interests" and there is no longer an overriding legitimate interest in continuing the processing;
  • the data processing being unlawful;
  • the deletion being mandatory due to a legal provision; or
  • the data processing being carried out in order to provide information services to a child.

The Liechtenstein data protection regulation is to be applied in full and is of considerable importance, especially when processing customer data.

At present, neither the production nor the use of virtual currencies as a means of payment is subject to special legal authorisation requirements. In individual cases, however, such a licence may be required when conducting commercial activities, depending on the structure of the specific business model.

Whether or not providing services concerning the "staking" of tokens requires a licence and is subject to the respective Liechtenstein financial market law provisions depends on the characteristics, the factual design and the nature of the business model.

Marxer & Partner

Heiligkreuz 6
9490 Vaduz
Liechtenstein

+423 235 8202

+423 235 8282

daniel.damjanovic@marxerpartner.com www.marxerpartner.com
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Law and Practice in Liechtenstein

Authors



Marxer & Partner was founded in 1925 and is owned by 12 partners. The law firm has a total of approximately 100 employees, including lawyers and assistants, which makes it the oldest and largest in Liechtenstein. For over 95 years, Marxer & Partner has been advising its clients in areas such as corporate law, M&A, trust and estate planning, capital markets and tax. Furthermore, Marxer & Partner is one of the leading Liechtenstein law firms advising and assisting its clients in the emerging field of fintech. The firm provides in-depth knowledge and advice in these fields to its international client base. Marxer & Partner’s experienced corporate litigation team has successfully represented clients in litigation and international arbitration proceedings, completing the scope of services provided to clients. Many of the firm’s lawyers regularly contribute to international handbooks and other publications, speak at conferences and teach at universities. The firm represents Liechtenstein at Lex Mundi, the worldwide association of independent law firms.