Australian law provides for a number of forms of corporate/business organisation, including those listed below.
Classes of Company
The registration, management and control of companies is governed by the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (Corporations Act), which is administered by ASIC.
The Corporations Act recognises that companies may be privately owned or publicly owned and provides for a number of sub-classes of company types within each of those categories.
Proprietary and public companies
Companies may be registered in Australia as either a proprietary (private) or a public company. A proprietary company is generally simpler and less expensive to administer than a public company because it is subject to fewer requirements under the Corporations Act. A proprietary company cannot have more than 50 non-employee shareholders and must have at least one member at all times. A proprietary company must not invite the public to subscribe for its shares or debentures, or to deposit money with the company. The only forms of proprietary companies are companies limited by shares or unlimited liability companies.
Proprietary companies are classified as "small" or "large" according to statutory thresholds for revenue, assets and employees. If a proprietary company is not classified as small, then it is a large proprietary company and subject to heightened administrative and reporting requirements under the Corporations Act.
A public company may raise funds from the public and be listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX). A public company must also have an auditor and, if it has more than one member, must hold a general meeting of its members at least once each calendar year. The forms of public companies are companies limited by shares, companies limited by guarantee, unlimited companies and no liability companies.
Companies limited by shares – public or proprietary
The most common type of company, whether it is publicly or privately owned, is a company limited by share capital. With this structure, the personal liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount (if any) unpaid on the shares held by the shareholder. These companies are denoted by "Limited" or "Ltd" in their name if they are public companies and "Pty Limited" or "Pty Ltd" in their name if they are proprietary companies.
Other forms of company
The Corporations Act provides for several other forms of company, including companies limited by guarantee (common for charities), unlimited liability companies (common for professional associations) and no liability companies (only available in the mining sector). Each of these structures has a naming convention reflecting the level of potential liability for members.
Australian corporate governance requirements are derived from common law, statute, exchange rules and market guidance. The principal sources of corporate governance requirements are listed below.
There are a number of corporate governance principles that are well established at common law, including a director’s fiduciary relationship to the company and duties owed to the company as a result of that relationship. At common law, company directors have fundamental duties including the duty of care and diligence and the duty to act in good faith in the best interests of the company and for a proper purpose. Company officers also have a duty to the company under the principles of agency, requiring them to act within the scope of their authority.
The Corporations Act is an Act of the Commonwealth of Australia and the primary law regulating the registration, control and management of companies. The Corporations Act imposes different sets of obligations on the various types of companies it regulates. Compliance with the Corporations Act is mandatory and a breach of the Act can attract both criminal and civil penalties. ASIC is responsible for the general administration and enforcement of the Corporations Act.
The Corporations Act includes a range of provisions directly and indirectly relating to corporate governance, including:
The Corporations Act also contains certain replaceable rules and, in some cases, companies may elect to have the replaceable rules apply to manage the company instead of a constitution.
Companies with securities (eg, shares) publicly traded on the ASX are subject to additional requirements under the ASX’s exchange rules and associated guidance on corporate governance.
ASX Listing Rules
Listed companies must agree to comply with the ASX Listing Rules and the operating and settlement rules of the exchange. The ASX Listing Rules set out, among other things, requirements for admission to list on the ASX and removal from the official list, continuous disclosure of information to the public, the rights that may be attached to the securities of a listed company, security holder approval for certain transactions and reorganisation of a company’s capital.
The ASX Listing Rules also require listed companies to comply with specific corporate governance requirements for:
ASX Corporate Governance Council’s Principles and Recommendations (Fourth Edition)
Listed companies must prepare and publish a corporate governance statement which outlines their governance practices as compared to the ASX Corporate Governance Council’s Corporate Governance Principles and Recommendations (ASX Corporate Governance Principles).
The members of the ASX Corporate Governance Council (Council) represent a range of business, shareholder and industry groups with an interest in the orderly operation of the market and good governance of market participants. The fourth edition was published in February 2019 and takes effect for an entity’s first full financial year commencing on or after 1 January 2020. While compliance with the ASX Corporate Governance Principles is not mandatory, listed entities must report against them on an "if not, why not" basis.
A number of additional corporate governance requirements are imposed under other pieces of Australian legislation, including those listed below.
Prudential Regulation for Banking, Insurance and Superannuation Entities
Specific prudential regulation applies to certain types of financial services businesses, including banking, insurance and superannuation entities. The Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) is an independent statutory authority that supervises regulated entities in relation to a range of matters including prudential conduct, risk management, capital adequacy, outsourcing and, increasingly, the governance and remuneration practices of these entities.
Banking Executive Accountability Regime
The Banking Executive Accountability Regime (BEAR) is set out in Part IIAA of the Banking Act 1959 (Cth) and establishes accountability obligations for authorised deposit-taking institutions (eg, banks) and their senior executives and directors. The regime is administered by APRA and intends to improve governance outcomes by making managers accountable for the conduct of the staff in their areas of responsibility. It is proposed that BEAR be extended to also apply to insurance and superannuation entities in the future (known as the Financial Services Executive Accountability Regime or ‘FSEAR’).
Resources and Reserves Reporting
Mining entities and oil and gas entities listed on the ASX are required to satisfy additional disclosure requirements in relation to their corporate reporting and to comply with industry codes which set minimum standards for public reporting of exploration results, resources and reserves.
Modern Slavery in Supply Chains
The Modern Slavery Act 2018 (Cth) requires certain organisations with consolidated revenue over AUD100 million to prepare annual modern slavery statements including, amongst other things, an explanation of areas of risk of potential modern slavery in relation to the organisation’s supply chain, as well as an outline of the steps being taken to mitigate those risks and their effectiveness. New South Wales has passed similar legislation applying to organisations with consolidated revenue of AUD50 million or more, however those laws are under review and not yet in effect.
Other Regulatory Compliance Obligations
A number of other legislative requirements apply to Australian companies which may impact the corporate governance or operation of those entities, or the duties or liability of their managers. Examples include financial services legislation, anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism legislation, taxation legislation, environmental legislation, workplace health and safety laws, and anti-trust and trade practices regulations.
The debate around corporate governance in Australia in recent years has produced strident public criticism of a number of large Australian companies for perceived failings of corporate culture and conduct. This has also resulted in criticism of the effectiveness of the Australian regulators, including ASIC, which in turn, is driving an increasingly aggressive approach to regulatory enforcement within Australia.
Issues which have been at the heart of the debate include limitations of shareholder primacy (and discussion about the extent to which broader stakeholder interests should feature in corporate decision-making), the extent to which executives are held accountable for poor corporate conduct in the current system of corporate governance practised in Australia, and whether common Australian practices for remuneration incentives may encourage poor corporate conduct.
Royal Commission into Misconduct in the Banking, Superannuation and Financial Services Industry
The Royal Commission into Misconduct in the Banking, Superannuation and Financial Services Industry (Royal Commission) was established by the Australian government in 2017 following widespread concern regarding alleged misconduct and poor corporate conduct in that sector. The Final Report of the Royal Commission (Hayne Report) was released in February 2019 and made the following key findings relating to governance:
In January 2020 the Australian government released a package of draft legislation, which included a Proposal Paper on the FSEAR.
Institutional Investor and Proxy Adviser Voting Guidelines
Large financial institutions and their proxy advisers continue to influence Australian corporate governance practices and, in relation to industry-based superannuation funds, are increasingly activist in their approach to portfolio companies. Australian listed companies commonly have regard to the corporate governance and voting guidelines published by large institutional investors (such as BlackRock and the Australian Council of Superannuation Investors (ACSI)) and proxy advisory bodies which advise or vote on behalf of large institutional investors (such as Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS), CGI Glass Lewis and Ownership Matters).
ESG issues, including modern slavery and climate change risk, have been at the forefront of a number of key developments in Australian corporate governance, as activists increasingly seek enhanced disclosure as a means to catalyse social or environmental changes.
The Modern Slavery Act and its mandatory reporting requirements have placed pressure on Australian companies to ensure transparency in supply chains. See 2.1 Key Rules and Requirements above.
In Australia regulators are increasingly expecting companies to report on their climate change risks, and the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) has become the prevailing standard under which significant listed companies report their climate-related risk exposure.
Wages and Underpayments
A recent proliferation of systemic underpayment issues in Australian companies, due in part to the complexity of the country’s industrial relations instruments, has highlighted the significant reputational and financial risks that can flow from a lack of governance or compliance control over wage and payment processes.
COVID-19 has presented a number of challenges for Australian companies from a corporate governance perspective, including with respect to managing continuous disclosure obligations, convening and holding shareholder meetings and managing liquidity through the cancellation of dividends.
Certain Corporations Act requirements have been temporarily modified to facilitate “virtual” meetings of directors and shareholders. The Corporations (Coronavirus Economic Response) Determination (No 1) 2020 will be in effect until early November 2020 and allows companies to convene an annual general meeting (AGM) and other meetings of shareholders and directors entirely online.
Certain Corporations Act requirements relating to continuous disclosure have also been temporarily relaxed, now providing that a breach of relevant civil penalty provisions will occur only where information is withheld from disclosure with knowledge, recklessness or negligence as to whether it would have a material effect on the price or value of the company’s securities. The Corporations (Coronavirus Economic Response) Determination (No 2) 2020 will be in effect until late November 2020. Importantly, however, the protection offered by the Determination has some serious limitations, including for companies seeking to provide guidance or make forward-looking statements.
Australian company boards must consider whether it is appropriate to proceed with proposed dividend payments having regard to their directors’ duties and the cash flow needs of their business. Australian companies that have "resolved to pay" a dividend, and publicly announced that fact to the market, can often opt to defer or cancel the dividend provided they do so prior to the date for payment and, where listed, immediately notify the ASX.
The insolvency laws have been temporarily modified to relieve directors from the risk of personal liability for insolvent trading, where the debts are incurred in the ordinary course of business. The relief will operate for a six-month period from 25 March 2020 and supplements the existing safe harbour regime.
In Australia, shareholders of companies vest the board of directors with the power to manage the affairs of the company under the company’s constitution. For significant public companies, the management and oversight of the company will usually be divided between the board (which may be comprised of a mix of executive and non-executive directors) and the management team (typically executives of the company). The size and composition of the board and specific responsibilities of management roles will depend on the type and size of the company.
The board of directors is appointed by shareholders and oversees the management team and the governance of the company. The board is led by a chairperson, who is typically elected by the members of the board.
The board of a publicly listed company is usually comprised of a majority of non-executive directors (often, independent non-executive directors) and a small number of executive directors, for example the CEO. The ASX Corporate Governance Principles provide specific recommendations in relation to the composition and independence of listed company boards and board committees (see 4.3 Board Composition Requirements/Recommendations).
The Corporations Act permits directors to delegate some of their powers to a committee of the board, another director, an employee of the company or any other person (unless the company’s constitution provides otherwise). However, the board must retain ultimate oversight and decision-making power in respect of the matters so delegated and there are certain responsibilities that cannot be delegated by law (eg, approval of financial statements).
Common board committees, particularly for listed companies and other significant entities, include the following:
These may be "standalone" committees or combined. Other common focus areas for board committees are governance, people and human resources, corporate responsibility and sustainability and workplace, health and safety. Ad hoc board committees may also be established from time to time for transactional projects or as a mechanism for managing potential conflicts of interest on the board.
The management team are employees of the company and will typically be responsible for implementing an entity’s strategic objectives, whilst operating within the values, codes of conduct, budget and risk appetite set by the board. The management team of a company will be led by the CEO who is often also a member of the board.
The board will invariably be vested with responsibility for the management of the company and its affairs. The board then delegates the responsibility for the day-to-day management of the company to the management team through the board charter and its internal delegations framework and policies, subject to reserving certain matters for its own decision.
Responsibilities of a company that are almost universally reserved for the board include:
Most Australian companies will structure and organise managerial decision-making through a delegations framework outlining the types of decisions likely to arise in the business and the limits of authority of key executives in making those decisions.
Board and Board Committee Decision-Making
The procedures for board and committee meetings are typically contained in a company’s constitutional documents and internal charters. At a board meeting the directors will vote on decisions and the resolutions (ie, outcomes) will be recorded in the minutes of the meeting.
A high-level outline of the proceedings of meetings is recorded in minute books maintained by the company. Such records are commonly accepted by Australian courts as evidence of the matters considered at the relevant meeting, particularly where they have been reviewed and approved by the board.
The decision-making process of a management team will vary depending on the company. However, boards will usually adopt standing internal delegations of power to the CEO and management team to facilitate their day-to-day management of the company. Management will often have to engage with the board to seek approval of material decisions at board meetings.
The Corporations Act provides that a proprietary company must have at least one director, and at least one director ordinarily residing in Australia. Proprietary companies are not required to have a company secretary, although it is common practice within large corporate groups.
A public company (including those listed on ASX) must have at least three directors, two ordinarily residing in Australia. Public companies must have at least one Australian resident company secretary.
The roles of the different members of boards of directors may include non-executive directors, executive directors, a chairperson and managing director. Further detail on each of these members is set out below.
Directors may be non-executive or executive directors.
Non-executive directors, including independent non-executive directors, are not employed by the company and therefore are expected to provide objective oversight of the company’s affairs.
Executive directors are directors who are also executives employed by the entity. Both non-executive and executive directors have the same baseline legal duties, responsibilities and potential liabilities. However, in practice, executive directors will often be held to a higher standard by virtue of their executive role. When determining whether a director has discharged their duties, Australian courts apply an objective standard and consider the role of the relevant person and the expected expertise of persons occupying that role or office.
Significant companies in Australia typically have a director acting in the role of chairperson to lead the board and facilitate board and shareholder meetings. In some circumstances, the constitution may specify requirements or confer special powers on the chairperson, including whether they have a casting vote at board and shareholder meetings. The chairperson’s role may be a standing appointment or may be for a specified meeting or time period.
Recommendation 2.5 of the ASX Corporate Governance Principles recommends that the chairperson of the board of a listed company be an independent director and that they should not be the same person as the CEO of the company.
It is very common in Australia for the CEO of an entity to be appointed to the board as an executive director. In such a case, that person is often given the title of managing director.
Typically, the managing director is responsible for the management of the company and its operations. This can include:
The appointment of a director is governed by the Corporations Act. Only individuals, over the age of 18 years, are eligible to be appointed as a director unless they are disqualified from managing corporations in which case they may only become directors with permission from ASIC or if court leave is granted.
Minimum and Maximum Number of Directors
Companies must meet the statutory minimum number of directors under the Corporations Act (see 4.1 Board Structure). In addition, company constitutions may set out the minimum and maximum number of directors which a company must have.
Under the ASX Corporate Governance Principles, all listed companies are subject to recommendations applicable to board and board committee composition (see 4.5 Rules/Requirements Concerning Independence of Directors). However, listed companies in the S&P/ASX300 Index are required by the Listing Rules to comply with certain of these recommendations.
Recommendation 2.2 provides that listed companies should have and disclose a board skills matrix outlining the mix of skills, knowledge, experience and capabilities that the board currently has or is looking to achieve in its membership.
The ASX Corporate Governance Principles also recommend that listed companies set measurable objectives for achieving gender diversity in the composition of their board, senior executives and workforce generally, and annually disclose their progress towards achieving those objectives. For listed companies that are included in the S&P/ASX 300 Index, the measurable objective for achieving board gender diversity is recommended to be that at least 30% of the company's directors be of each gender.
Boards of APRA-regulated entities are subject to heightened eligibility requirements under Prudential Standard CPS 520 which mandates that their directors be "fit and proper" persons to ensure that the institution prudently manages risk related to its leadership.
In Australia, the Corporations Act, ASX Listing Rules and a company’s constitution will govern how directors are appointed and removed.
Appointment and Re-election
For both proprietary and public companies, pursuant to the Corporations Act, directors can be appointed by either a shareholder resolution passed at a general meeting or a director resolution.
ASIC must be notified of director appointments within 28 days.
Additional requirements apply to the appointment and re-election of directors under the ASX Listing Rules. Under ASX Listing Rule 14.4, a director appointed by the board of a listed entity (other than the managing director) only holds office until the next AGM of the company at which time they must seek election by shareholder resolution or retire.
ASX Listing Rules 14.4 and 14.5 specify that for listed public companies: (i) a director, except the managing director, must stand for re-election at least every three years; and (ii) at least one director must stand for election, or re-election, at each AGM. ASX Listing Rule 3.16.1 prescribes that the ASX must immediately be notified of changes to the chairperson, directors, CEO, CFO or secretary of listed public companies.
A director of a proprietary company may be removed from office by shareholder resolution. Directors of public companies may also be removed by shareholder resolution, provided a specified process in the Corporations Act is followed.
The constitution of a proprietary company can provide for directors to be removed by board resolution. Directors of public companies cannot be removed by their peers and can only be removed by shareholder resolution.
Directors may also be removed if they are disqualified from managing corporations under Part 2D.6 of the Corporations Act or if they automatically vacate office in specified circumstances provided in the company’s constitution (eg, becoming of unsound mind, being convicted of an indictable offence and, for APRA-regulated entities, ceasing to be a "fit and proper" person under relevant prudential standards).
The rules and requirements in relation to potential conflicts of interest are set out in the Corporations Act and, for listed entities, the ASX Corporate Governance Principles provides additional considerations for director independence.
Conflicts of Interest
Under Section 181 of the Corporations Act, directors must act in good faith in the best interests of the company and for a proper purpose. This requirement reflects that decisions must be made in the interests of the company with regard to shareholders as a whole, and not just individual shareholders or specific interest groups.
Section 191 of the Corporations Act outlines situations where a director must notify the other directors of a material personal interest in a matter that relates to the affairs of the company and, under Section 195, directors of public companies are not permitted to attend and vote at meetings considering matters in which they have a material personal interest (subject to some exceptions).
The ASX Corporate Governance Principles emphasise the importance of director independence as a means of providing objective oversight of listed companies, separate to management interests and other extraneous relationships. For this reason, the ASX Corporate Governance Principles recommend that listed companies have a chairperson who is independent and who is not the CEO. Box 2.3 of the ASX Corporate Governance Principles sets out instances of interests, positions and relationships that may raise issues for the independence of a director.
Composition recommendations under the ASX Corporate Governance Principles also emphasise that the majority of members of the board and board committees should be independent non-executive directors and have independent chairs. In the case of the audit committee, the Council also recommends that the chair not be the same person as the chairperson of the board.
Compliance with the Council’s recommendations for audit committee member independence is mandatory for listed companies in the S&P/ASX300 Index. The ASX Listing Rules also require that S&P/ASX300-listed companies have a remuneration committee comprised solely of non-executive directors.
If a director or officer breaches their duties, they individually, as well as the company, could be subject to sanctions, including financial penalties and imprisonment. The range of duties directors and officers owe to the company under both statutory and common law are described below.
Common Law Duties
Under the common law, directors have duties to:
Statutory Law Duties
The statutory duties of directors and officers are contained in Part 2D.1 of the Corporations Act. Under the Corporations Act, directors and officers are required to:
For directors, these statutory duties apply in addition to the common law duties set out above, although the two sets of duties are broadly consistent. The Corporations Act may impose other, more specific obligations in the context of a particular sector (for example, the duty imposed on a holder of an Australian Financial Services Licence to have an appropriate conflict management policy).
Business Judgement Rule
As set out above, one of the core duties of a director (or officer) is to exercise care and diligence in carrying out his or her duties. Directors and officers will discharge this duty under the Corporations Act and the common law if they satisfy the conditions required under the Corporations Act when making a "business judgement" (ie, any decision to take or not take action in respect of matters relevant to the company’s business or operations).
However, Australian courts have interpreted the scope of "safe harbour" protections for business judgements narrowly and there are relatively few examples of directors or officers successfully relying on the protection it (ostensibly) offers.
Other Duties – Prevent Insolvent Trading
Under the Corporations Act, there is a positive duty on directors to prevent the company from incurring debts by trading while insolvent.
There are certain defences a director may rely on, including that the director believed on reasonable grounds that the company was solvent or took all reasonable steps to prevent the company from incurring the debt.
In 2017, the Corporations Act was amended to provide directors with a further defence to civil action for insolvent trading where the debt that the liquidator alleges had been incurred whilst the company was insolvent was incurred in connection with a course of action that is reasonably likely to provide a better outcome for the company than its immediate liquidation or administration. Further temporary protections are also in place as a response measure for the COVID-19 pandemic (see 2.4 The Impact of COVID-19 on Governance).
All directors have a duty to exercise their powers and discharge their duties in good faith and in the best interests of the company, which means that they must act in the best interests of current and future shareholders as a general or collective body. In the event of actual or potential insolvency, the directors’ duty to the company may extend to include consideration of creditor interests.
For directors of wholly owned subsidiaries, if the constitution expressly authorises those directors to act in the best interests of the holding company, Section 187 of the Corporations Act allows directors of wholly owned subsidiary companies to have regard to the best interests of the corporate parent in some circumstances.
A breach of duty by directors may result in proceedings being brought against them by:
Proceedings for a breach of duty may involve civil or criminal penalties and result in significant reputational damage for the company and the director(s).
Under Part 2D.2 of the Corporations Act, proprietary and public companies are prohibited from exempting a director or officer from liability to the company. A company is also prohibited from indemnifying a director, or any other person, for:
Directors also have duties which are found in other pieces of legislation and which may impose personal liability on directors for non-compliance. The primary areas where these duties arise can be found in financial services legislation, anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism legislation, taxation legislation, environmental legislation, workplace health and safety laws, and anti-trust and trade practices regulations. These and other statutory duties may be owed to the company’s shareholders, its employees and relevant third parties.
There are a number of approvals that are required in connection with the remuneration, fees or benefits payable to directors and officers.
For proprietary companies, the constitution may specify requirements in relation to approval of directors’ remuneration.
For public companies, the constitution will generally require shareholders to approve the total aggregate amount of remuneration that can be paid to non-executive directors, and directors will have discretion as to the allocation amongst themselves. The board determines the remuneration payable to executive directors, which must be reasonable pursuant to Chapter 2E of the Corporations Act.
The ASX Listing Rules similarly require the fees for directors of a listed company to be paid from an aggregate pool approved by shareholders. Executive directors’ remuneration is not subject to the same requirement, however, it cannot include commissions on, or percentages of, the business’ operating revenue.
Subject to the terms of a listed company’s employee incentive scheme, ASX Listing Rule 10.14 also prohibits a director, or a related party, to acquire securities under an employee incentive scheme without shareholder approval (subject to certain exceptions). Termination payments to certain types of officers, including directors, are also limited under the ASX Listing Rules and the Corporations Act.
Shareholder Approval of Remuneration Policies and Payments
Listed companies are not subject to binding shareholder votes in relation to remuneration policies, however, they are required to make detailed disclosure of their remuneration policies for (and payments made to) directors and key management personnel in their remuneration report. Those reports are subject to:
The disclosures that a company must make in relation to the remuneration, fees or benefits payable to directors and officers will depend on the type of company.
Most small proprietary companies are not required to prepare financial reports, which means that there is limited disclosure in relation to remuneration payments.
Large proprietary companies and public companies are required to prepare financial reports which typically require disclosure of remuneration paid to directors pursuant to Accounting Standard AASB 124 (Related Party Disclosures).
Listed companies must make detailed disclosure of their remuneration policies for directors and key management personnel in a specific remuneration report (Section 300A Corporations Act). The applicable disclosure requirements are set out in the Corporations Act, Corporations Regulations 2001 (Cth) and Australian Accounting Standards. The remuneration report must be presented to shareholders at the AGM for adoption by way of an advisory vote; for further detail see 4.10 Approvals and Restrictions Concerning Payments to Directors/Officers.
Directors of a company are accountable to its shareholders as the owners of that company. The rules and requirements that may govern the relationship between a company and its shareholders can be found in the Corporations Act and, for listed companies, the ASX Listing Rules.
The company’s constitution has the effect of a statutory contract between the company and each shareholder. The constitution typically contains provisions dealing with the powers of the company, issue and transfer of shares, members and directors’ meetings, appointment and renewal of directors and dividend procedures. The company’s constitution will usually be supplemented by board and board committee charters, corporate governance policies and other internal frameworks.
In the absence of express constitutional provisions, shareholders are not able to direct the board in the exercise of its powers to manage the affairs of the company. As set out above in 3.1 Bodies or Functions Involved in Governance and Management, company constitutions generally vest all powers of management in the board (and authorise the board to delegate those powers to management). Accordingly, the principal rights of shareholders to exert control over the company are to appoint or remove the directors or to amend the company’s constitution.
A shareholder or shareholders holding more than 5% of the voting shares can requisition a shareholders meeting or, at their own cost, convene a shareholders' meeting, to consider any resolution validly within the power of shareholders. Either 100 shareholders together or any one or more shareholders holding more than 5% of the voting shares can also requisition that a resolution be put to the next general meeting convened by the board (provided it is at least two months after the requisition).
Shareholders have limited rights to demand access to information under the Corporations Act in the absence of a court order to inspect the books of the company. At common law, shareholders also have limited rights to inspect the books of a company, unless that inspection is necessary in relation to a specific dispute or question (and is only then granted to such extent as may be necessary for that purpose).
Major shareholders are often able to exercise a higher degree of control over how the company is managed and will often seek to appoint directors that effectively act as their spokespersons and represent and protect their interests in the company.
Under the Corporations Act, public companies with more than one shareholder must hold an AGM at least once every calendar year, within five months after the end of its financial year. Proprietary companies must hold such meetings if they are required by their constitution.
Meetings involving shareholders are subject to rules set out in the Corporations Act and companies’ constitutions regarding the giving of notice and the time and place where the meeting can be held.
A shareholders’ meeting may be called:
The court may also call a meeting if it is impractical to call one in any other way.
Shareholders can bring a claim and seek a remedy against the company or directors individually for the following bases of claim:
There are a number of disclosure and other obligations on shareholders in public companies, including shareholder substantial notice and director notifiable interests as set out below.
Shareholder Substantial Notice
Shareholders are considered to have a substantial holding if they have relevant interests in voting shares or interests carrying 5% or more of total votes.
Pursuant to Section 671B of the Corporations Act, shareholders of public companies must provide a substantial holding notice if the shareholder:
Director Notifiable Interest
Subject to a company’s constitution, directors can own shares in the company. Under the Corporations Act and ASX Listing Rule 3.19A, listed companies must notify the ASX of the notifiable interests of a director, which will be publicly accessible.
All large proprietary companies and public companies are required under the Corporations Act to prepare and lodge with ASIC a financial report, directors’ report and auditors’ report for each financial year (together forming an "annual report"). In some circumstances, small proprietary companies may also have to prepare a financial report and directors’ report (eg, where directed to do so by ASIC or shareholders with at least 5% of the votes in the company, or where the company is controlled by a foreign entity).
For companies that are listed, rather than lodging their annual report with ASIC, they may rely on class order relief and satisfy the lodgement obligation by releasing their annual report to the ASX. All companies which are required to prepare an annual report must provide it to members within four months of the end of their financial year (or at least 21 days before the company’s AGM, if earlier).
Under the Corporations Act, directors are ultimately responsible for the veracity of financial statements. Directors have a duty to ensure that financial statements are compliant with accounting standards and present a true and fair view of the company.
Listed companies and other "disclosing entities" are also required to prepare and lodge with ASIC a half-year financial report, directors’ report and auditors’ report. Listed companies also have supplementary periodic reporting requirements under the ASX Listing Rules, including lodging with ASX:
There are limited disclosure requirements relating to corporate governance for proprietary companies and unlisted public companies.
Under ASX Listing Rules 4.7 and 4.10.3, listed companies must prepare a corporate governance statement (included in or provided with their annual report), which discloses the extent to which the entity has followed the recommendations in the ASX Corporate Governance Principles during the financial year. If the entity has not followed a recommendation for any part of the reporting period, its corporate governance statement must identify the recommendation, the period it was not followed, the reasons for not following it, and alternative practices adopted (if any). An appendix checklist must be lodged with the ASX at the same time, showing compliance (or non-compliance) with each recommendation in the ASX Corporate Governance Principles.
A company’s registry filing obligations will depend on its type, ownership and activities, and may include:
Filings Required Under the Corporations Act
Filing obligations under the Corporations Act include:
Continuous Disclosure Obligation and Other Filings Required Under the ASX Listing Rules
ASX listed companies are required to disclose certain information to the market immediately in order to ensure that trading occurs on an informed basis. The key disclosure obligation applicable to ASX listed companies under the ASX Listing Rules is the continuous disclosure obligation in ASX Listing Rule 3.1. This requires an ASX listed entity to immediately disclose to the ASX any information concerning it that a reasonable person would expect to have a material effect on the price or value of its securities as soon as it becomes aware of such information.
ASX Listing Rule 3 also sets out a number of other "immediate" notification requirements applicable to listed companies, including:
In addition, the ASX Listing Rules contain notification requirements in relation to members’ meetings, share capital (ie, dividends, issues, reorganisations, buy-backs), options, takeovers, particular types of transactions, significant changes in the nature or scale of the company’s activities, investor communications and other company-specific documents.
Pursuant to Section 301(1) of the Corporations Act, large proprietary and public companies must appoint an external auditor in connection with its financial statements. Auditing and the appointment of auditors is strictly regulated by the Corporations Act.
Under Section 324DA of the Corporations Act, lead audit partners and other key persons involved in a listed company’s audit must generally be rotated after five years. Auditors are subject to significant duties of independence, diligence and skill. The accounting standard APES 110 Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants sets out the independence requirements for auditors.
Non-audit Services and Auditor Independence
Under Section 300(11B) of the Corporations Act, a company’s directors’ report must include:
Requirement for Auditors to Attend Company General Meetings
Under Section 250RA of the Corporations Act, the auditor of a listed company is required to attend the AGM and shareholders are able to ask the auditor questions relevant to specific matters at an AGM. There is also an opportunity for shareholders to submit written questions to the auditor.
Under Section 180 of the Corporations Act, directors are required to exercise skill, care and diligence in the discharge of their duties, which includes having regard to financial and non-financial risks and internal controls in overseeing the management of the company.
The ASX Corporate Governance Principles also outline that the board of a listed company is ultimately responsible for deciding the nature and extent of the risks to which a company is prepared to be exposed. The ASX Corporate Governance Principles recommend that a listed company should establish a sound risk management framework and periodically review the effectiveness of that framework.
To enable the board to do this, the company must have an appropriate framework to identify and manage risks on an ongoing basis. It is the role of the board to set the risk appetite for the company, to oversee its risk management framework and to satisfy itself that the framework is sound. It is the role of management to design and implement that framework and to ensure that the company operates within the risk appetite set by the board.
Pursuant to Recommendation 4.2 of the ASX Corporate Governance Principles, before the board of a listed company approves its financial statements for a full year or half-year period, the CEO and CFO are recommended to provide declarations to the board that, in their opinion, the financial records of the company have been properly maintained and that the financial statements comply with the appropriate accounting standards and give a true and fair view, and also that the opinion has been formed on the basis of a sound system of risk management and internal control which is operating effectively.