Employment 2020 covers 49 jurisdictions. This edition discusses the legislative action taken to address the COVID-19 pandemic, non-competition and non-solicitation clauses, data privacy, foreign workers, unions, termination of employment, wrongful dismissal claims, anti-discrimination issues and dispute resolution.
Last Updated: September 08, 2020
The late Professor Roger Blanpain consistently started his courses on employment law at the University of Leuven with the statement “labour relations are relations of power”.
In such relations with two parties, one party is always the stronger and the other is the weaker. In employment relations the employer, giving work, is the stronger party, with the employee, rendering services against remuneration, being the weaker party.
Employment law is designed as the instrument to protect the weaker party against the (arbitrary discretion of the) stronger party. At first, this protection focused essentially on the individual relationship. Early 20th-century focus also started to switch to the collective relationship: union representation of the employees, co-determination, etc.
Employment laws are, almost by definition, national laws: their scope of application is defined by the national borders. Consequently, they may differ distinctly from one country to another, from one culture to another. One legal scholar found that, “at the risk of over-simplifying often complex realities [...] a distinction can be drawn between the European and the Anglo-Saxon models of labour laws”. He established that the European model framing employee protection takes an approach that is “individual rights” driven whereas the Anglo-Saxon model rather “seeks to address the problem associated with the lack of individual bargaining equality at a higher, viz collective, level”.
The different approach based on national culture and heritage is also apparent in a combined market such as the EU. Although the EU is competent to impose social principles throughout the EU, it is always up to the individual member states to implement these principles in their national law. This often results in different practical implementations in local laws, like the TUPE Directive.
In a world that has become much more global, where cross-border relationships, acquisitions, etc, have become standard practice, it is crucial to have sufficient insight into the local employment laws that can have an impact on the global situation.
That is why a comparative view on the local employment laws is essential in international relations. The COVID-19 crisis has exacerbated the fact that knowledge of one’s own local laws is not enough to manage globalised employee-employer relationships. Although this pandemic has affected the whole world, legal initiatives in response to it were mainly taken at the local level. A comparative overview of the main local COVID-19 employment measures is therefore included in this year’s guide.
This guide, using an outline template review country by country spread across the globe, describes the nature and scope of the legal framework governing the employment relationship. The outline covers not just the typical topics for employment professionals – such as wages, benefits and health benefits laws – but also regulations more broadly affecting organisations, such as union organisation, immigration and the aforementioned data privacy and retaliation restrictions.