Contributed By Pérez-Llorca
Spain’s court system is structured hierarchically. Courts are divided into municipalities, districts, provinces and autonomous communities. There are national courts which have nationwide jurisdiction, such as the Spanish Supreme Court (“Tribunal Supremo”) or the National Criminal and Administrative Court (“Audiencia Nacional”). There are also regional high courts, or autonomous community courts, such as the High Courts of Justice, which have authority over an autonomous community (“Tribunal Superior de Justicia”), and provincial courts (“Audiencia Provincial”) which have jurisdiction over a single province. There are also lower courts, such as First Instance Courts (“Juzgados de Primera Instancia”), which are assigned to judicial districts.
Courts are also organised by subject matter jurisdiction. Specifically, there are civil courts, criminal courts, administrative courts and labour courts. There are also military courts. On the other hand, ordinary courts exist which specialise in specific matters, such as family or commercial courts.